Dr. Ravi Bhatt Clinic

Hypothyroidism- Causes, symptoms, and investigations

Hypothyroidism is a condition in which the body is not able to form enough thyroid hormone which is required for the body. Hypothyroidism is most commonly found in females than in males.

Causes of Hypothyroidism:

Iodine deficiency is the main cause of hypothyroidism.

  1. The primary cause of hypothyroidism
    1. Autoimmune hypothyroidism: Hashimoto’s thyroiditis and atrophic thyroiditis
    2. Iatrogenic: Radioactive Iodine treatment, subtotal or total thyroidectomy, external irradiation of neck for cancer.
    3. Drugs: Lithium, iodine excess (amiodarone and iodine-containing contrast medium), anti thyroid drugs, etc
    4. Infiltrative disorders like amyloidosis, sarcoidosis, hemochromatosis, scleroderma, etc.
    5. Iodine deficiency
  2. The secondary cause of hypothyroidism
    • Hypopituitarism
    • Bexarotene treatment
    • Isolated TSH deficiency
    • Hypothalamic disease.
  3. Transient cause of hypothyroidism
    • After radioactive Iodine treatment or subtotal thyroidectomy for Graves’ disease.
    • Silent thyroiditis.
    • Subacute thyroiditis
    • Withdrawl of treatment by thyroxine in a patient with intact thyroid.

Symptoms of hypothyroidism:

  1. Tiredness.
  2. Paresthesia (Tingling and pricking sensation or pins and needle sensation)
  3. Feeling cold.
  4. Dry skin.
  5. Loss of hair.
  6. Weight gain and loss of appetite (Weight gain due to hypothyroidism is can be reduced by workout only).
  7. Poor concentration and poor memory.
  8. Constipation.
  9. Hoarseness in the voice.
  10. Irregularity in mensuration.
  11. Breathing difficulty.
  12. Impaired hearing.
  13. Skin becomes dry and coarse.
  14. Extremities become cold
  15. Slow heart rate.
  16. Swelling in the body which may pit on pressure.
  17. Myxedema: Puffy face hands and feet
  18. Carpal tunnel syndrome.
  19. Depression

Congenital hypothyroidism:

It is transient specifically if the mother has TSH-r blocking antibody or has received anti thyroid drugs. Neonatal hypothyroidism is due to the thyroid gland dysgenesis in most of the cases.

The infants who suffered from congenital hypothyroidism appear normal at birth and less than ten percent have clinical features like prolonged jaundice, hypotonia, the problem in feeding, enlargement of the tongue, umbilical hernia, if its treatment is delayed then it will lead to permanent neurologic damage.

Investigations :

  1. Estimation of T3, T4 TSH level.
  2. Anti TPO antibody.

What to eat what not to eat:

  1. To eat:

  1. Food rich in Iodine: Iodine can be taken when we take common salt in food it is the cheapest way to take iodine, other foods which are rich in iodine are saltwater fish, dairy products, eggs, seaweeds, cheese. As there is iodine fortified salt is easily available, so there is not much need to supplement your diet with iodine-rich food, as iodized salt is sufficient
  2. Chicken, lamb.
  3. Fruits: Banana, orange.
  4. Seeds: Chia and flax seeds, sesame seeds.
  5. Rice.
  6. Food rich in zinc: Oyster and chicken, pumpkin seeds, yogurt, pork, beef.
  7. Food rich in selenium: Tuna fish, brazil nut, turkey eggs, sardine fish, legumes are also rich in selenium.
  8. Dairy products, gluten-free grains, meat.
  9. Peas, beans, asparagus.

2 Not to eat

All millets, excess fibers from beans, legumes, etc, food with soy like tofu, miso, etc, processed food food-like hotdogs must be avoided, cabbage, cauliflower, sweet potatoes, peanuts, alcohol, and fried things, etc must be avoided in hypothyroidism.

3.Can be taken but in a low amount : Soy food, tofu, soy milk, broccoli, kale, peaches, peach, pear, strawberries coffee, green tea.