Dr. Ravi Bhatt Clinic

Kidney stones: Renal Calculi or Nephrolithiasis

Kidney stones have many names like renal calculi or urinary calculi or nephrolithiasis, they are common, they are usually visible on X-ray. Basic constituents of kidney stones are cystine, struvite, uric acid, and calcium salts. Calcium oxalate and calcium phosphate are more common constituents of kidney stones.

Calcium stones are more commonly found in males, it is observed in 50% cases that the person in which there is the formation of one calcium stone, there is the chance of formation of another stone within 10 years.

Uric acid stones are also common in males, mostly 50% of patients having uric acid stones in their kidney are suffering from gout (but not necessarily).

Struvite stones are common in females and are dangerous, they are also found in the patient who requires chronic bladder catheterization and causes due to urinary tract infections in which proteus species is the causative organism.

Urinary bladder stones are common in developing countries, mainly in children. Staghorn calculi fill the renal pelvis completely and branches into calyces, their main cause is an infection and they are composed of mainly of struvite.

Causes of kidney stone or renal Calculi or Nephrolithiasis:

  1. Deficiency of vitamin A.
  2. High protein and sodium intake, and low calcium diet.
  3. When urine does not pass freely.
  4. Low water intake.
  5. Low mobility or no mobilization as seen in the case of paralysis, causes skeletal decalcification and thus calcium in urine is increased which leads to the formation of calcium phosphate calculi.
  6. Hyperparathyroidism, it results in the elimination of calcium in urine, often termed “passing of skeleton in urine”.
  7. Renal infections.
  8. Excretion of the high amount of sodium, urate, oxalate.

Symptoms of Kidney stones:

  1. Renal colic, it occurs when the kidney stone becomes impacted in the ureter, there is unbearable pain in the loin, this pain goes around the flank and to the groin, some time to the testis.
  2. The patient may present with yellowness of face, sweating, often followed by vomiting.
  3. The urgency and increased frequency to pass urine, painful or difficulty in the passing of urine (dysuria) and some time blood appears in urine (hematuria).
  4. Intermittent bearable dull pain in the back.

How to prevent kidney stone or renal Calculi or Nephrolithiasis:

  1. Plenty of water.
  2. Citrus fruit like lemon, orange.
  3. Sodium restriction, avoid an excess of common salt, use low sodium diet like broccoli, cauliflowers, apple, banana, beans (dried), brown rice, potato, sweet potato, chicken, pork, whole egg, olive oil, butter containing no salt, milk, yogurt, wheat bread, etc.
  4. Animal protein like red meat, egg, chicken, fish, pork, must be in a moderate amount, alternate can be tofu, quinoa, Greek yogurt.
  5. Calcium-rich diet, (dairy products like milk, whey protein cheese, yogurt, broccoli, collard, apricot, collard greens, turnip greens, kale, etc) because of the reason that calcium forms an insoluble salt with dietary oxalate and thus lowers the oxalate absorption and excretion.
  6. Magnesium-rich diet to be promoted.
  7. Oxalate rich food must be avoided (rhubarb, sweet potato, beets, peanuts, spinach, and chocolate, almonds, cashew, raspberries, etc.)
  8. Avoid cola drinks.
  9. Avoid High intake of Vitamin C supplements.

Investigations for kidney stones or renal Calculi or Nephrolithiasis:

  1. A plain abdominal X-ray is of great importance in many cases of kidney stones.
  2. Intravenous urography (IVU), also known as intravenous pyelography (IVP), it helps to identify stone in the ureter as the slow passage of contrast medium and dilated ureter points towards the diagnosis.
  3. A spiral CT scan helps to identify the non-opaque stone-like uric acid stones.
  4. Ultrasonography of abdomen.
  5. Chemical composition of stone must be investigated in the patient in which there is the first case of kidney stone is diagnosed and the same must for the patients suffering from recurrent kidney stones, for this urine must be sieved for a few days after the renal colic.
  6. Blood analysis for urea and electrolytes, calcium, uric acid, and phosphates in the patients in which there is first or recurrent kidney stones are detected.
  7. Dipstick test for protein, glucose, blood in the first time patients of kidney stones along with one more test for amino acids in urine for patients with recurrent renal or kidney stones.
  8. 24-hour urine test in the patients suffering from recurrent kidney stones or renal stones.

Treatment for Kidney stones or renal Calculi or Nephrolithiasis:

Homeopathic treatment has a very prestigious place in the treatment of renal or kidney stones, homeopathic medicines remove stones very effectively as compared to other expensive interventions like surgery and extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy (ESWL). Homeopathic medicines are also very beneficial in patients suffering from recurrent kidney stones. Homeopathic medicines help to avoid the formation of kidney stones recurrently.

Home remedies for removal of kidney stones:

  1. Plenty of water.
  2. Lady’s finger as it is rich in magnesium.
  3. Lemon juice and coconut water, citrus fruits
  4. Horse gram.
  5. Basil juice.
  6. Avoid high salt intake.
  7. Apple cider vinegar.
  8. Celery juice.
  9. Kidney beans.
  10. Celery juice, juice of pomegranate, dandelion root.