Vitamin B is a water-soluble vitamin.
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine):
Thiamine was the first vitamin B which is identified, so it is known as B1. It is a source of energy generation and a role in peripheral nerve conduction.
Deficiency of vitamin B (1):
- In the early stage of thiamine or vitamin b1 deficiency, there is a lack of appetite, irritability, blurry vision, muscle weakness, wasting, edema, etc, and tingling sensation.
- Long-standing vitamin b1 deficiency leads to beriberi.
- Alcoholic patients with chronic vitaminb1 deficiency may have CNS symptoms which are called Wernicke’s encephalopathy.
- The population which relies on a rice-based diet leads to vitamin b1 deficiency.
- Tea and coffee, raw fish, and shellfish have thiamineases that destroy vitamin b1 or thiamine.
Food sources of vitamin B (1):
- Yeast, powdered milk, soy milk, tofu.
- Pork, beef, liver, eggs, salmon, tuna, trout, catfish, mussels,
- Legume, oats.
- Green peas.
- Whole grain.
- Macadamia nuts, seeds (flax seeds, sunflower seeds, pistachio).
- Black beans, navy beans, black-eyed peas.
- Brown rice.
- Acorn squash.
Vitamin B (2) (Riboflavin):
- Riboflavin is necessary for fat, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism.
- Its deficiency causes magenta tongue, scaling, and fissure at the corners of the mouth (cheilosis), red swollen patches in corners of the mouth (angular stomatitis), scaly, and oily skin rashes (seborrhea), eyes become itchy, watery and light-sensitive normochromic normocytic anemia.
Food sources of vitamin B (2) Riboflavin:
- Milk (Low fat), butter, buttermilk, yogurt, feta cheese,
- Fortified bread and cereals.
- Legumes, Portobello mushrooms, lentils, soybeans.
- Lean meat, organ meat (kidney, liver), chicken dark meat
- Fish, salmon, tuna, oysters, rohu, mackerel, cooked clams, and mussels.
- Egg, almonds, avocados, banana, muscadine grapes, purple passion fruit juice,
- Brocolli,spinach,beet green,asparagus,fenugreek leaf.
- Skirt Beefsteak, pork chops.
- Green leafy vegetables.
- Tomatoes dried in sun.
Vitamin B3 (Niacin):
- Deficiency of Vitamin B (3) Niacin causes pellagra, its symptoms are loss of appetite, fatigue, irritability, pain in the abdomen, vomiting, bright red inflammation of the tongue (glossitis), which is then progressed into skin rash that is pigmented and scaling mainly in skin area which is exposed to sunlight. swelling of the vagina and esophagus may occur, in more severe deficiency there is dermatitis, memory loss and diarrhea occur.
- Food rich in Vitamin B3 Niacin :
- Beef and Chicken liver, chicken breast, ground turkey, tenderloin of pork
- Yellow and Bluefin Tuna fish,wild-caught salmon.
- Brown rice, Kamut.
- Whole wheat, whole wheat pasta
- Mushrooms (portabella, white button, mistake).
- Peas (green).
- White potatoes, sweet potatoes.
- Fortified cereals.
- Avocado, sunflower seeds, chia seeds.
Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine):
- Vitamin B (6) pyridoxine helps in the metabolism of steroids, lipids, many vitamins, and glycogen.
- Its deficiency leads to peripheral neuropathy, abnormality in EEG, personality changes, depression, and confusion, there may be anemia, diarrhea, seizure in babies below one year of age, and inflammation of the tongue.
- Dietary sources of vitamin B6 :
- Nuts, potatoes.
- Meat, like pork, chicken, and turkey.
- Wheat bran, brown rice, oat.
- Tuna and snapper fillet.
- Tofu (fortified).
- Green soybeans.
- Sweet potato.
- Bananas, mango.
- Pistachio, avocadoes.